Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES)

Purpose of the measure
The Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES) is a driving self-efficacy assessment. This scale has been developed to assess driving confidence on 12 typical driving tasks such as parallel parking, driving at night and driving in unfamiliar areas.

Available versions

The ADSES was developed by Dr. Stacey George, Michael Clark and Maria Crotty at Flinders University Department of Rehabilitation Aged and Extended Care in South Australia and was published in 2007.

Features of the measure

The ADSES is composed of 12 items that measure the levels of confidence of the client towards typical driving behaviours:

  1. Driving in your local area
  2. Driving in heavy traffic
  3. Driving in unfamiliar areas
  4. Driving at night
  5. Driving with people in the car
  6. Responding to road signs/traffic signals
  7. Driving around a roundabout
  8. Attempting to merge with traffic
  9. Turning right across oncoming traffic
  10. Planning travel to a new destination
  11. Driving in high speed areas
  12. Parallel parking.

The ADSES is self-scored using a Likert scale from 0 (no confidence) to 10 (completely confident). The score for each item can then be summed for a total possible score of 120, indicating the highest level of confidence.   

Not reported.


A pen and the test are needed to complete the ADSES.

No training requirements have been reported since the ADSES is intended to be self-administered.

Alternative forms of the Adelaide driving self-efficacy scale

ADSES–P: A by proxy version has been developed. The only change made from the original ADSES is the phrasing of the initial question: “How confident do you feel your family member can complete the following driving tasks safely?”, instead of: “How confident do you feel doing the following activities?” (Stapleton, Connolly, & O’Neill, 2012).

A study by Stapleton et al. (2012) showed a significant correlation between the ADSES and ADSES-P among patients with stroke at initial assessment (average 2 months post-stroke) and at six-month follow-up among the patients who successfully completed on-road driving assessments. These preliminary findings support the use of proxy ratings to identify the patients who are not ready for a formal driving assessment, although further research is needed to validate the use of a proxy version of the ADSES.

Client suitability

Can be used with:
Patients with stroke.

Should not be used with:
Not reported.

In what languages is the measure available?