The ADSES was developed by Dr. Stacey George, Michael Clark and Maria Crotty at Flinders University Department of Rehabilitation Aged and Extended Care in South Australia and was published in 2007.
The ADSES is composed of 12 items that measure the levels of confidence of the client towards typical driving behaviours:
- Driving in your local area
- Driving in heavy traffic
- Driving in unfamiliar areas
- Driving at night
- Driving with people in the car
- Responding to road signs/traffic signals
- Driving around a roundabout
- Attempting to merge with traffic
- Turning right across oncoming traffic
- Planning travel to a new destination
- Driving in high speed areas
- Parallel parking.
The ADSES is self-scored using a Likert scale from 0 (no confidence) to 10 (completely confident). The score for each item can then be summed for a total possible score of 120, indicating the highest level of confidence.
A pen and the test are needed to complete the ADSES.
No training requirements have been reported since the ADSES is intended to be self-administered.
ADSES–P: A by proxy version has been developed. The only change made from the original ADSES is the phrasing of the initial question: “How confident do you feel your family member can complete the following driving tasks safely?”, instead of: “How confident do you feel doing the following activities?” (Stapleton, Connolly, & O’Neill, 2012).
A study by Stapleton et al. (2012) showed a significant correlation between the ADSES and ADSES-P among patients with stroke at initial assessment (average 2 months post-stroke) and at six-month follow-up among the patients who successfully completed on-road driving assessments. These preliminary findings support the use of proxy ratings to identify the patients who are not ready for a formal driving assessment, although further research is needed to validate the use of a proxy version of the ADSES.
Can be used with:
Patients with stroke.
Should not be used with: