Mirror Therapy – upper extremity

Mirror therapy is a type of motor imagery whereby the patient moves his unaffected limb while watching the movement in a mirror; this in turn sends a visual stimulus to the brain to promote movement in the affected limb. Some of the effects of mirror therapy on the brain have already been demonstrated. A crossover study on healthy individuals by Garry, Loftus & Summers (2004) showed that viewing the mirror image of an individual’s active hand increased the excitability of neurons in the ipsilateral primary motor cortex significantly more than viewing the inactive hand directly (no mirror). The study also found a trend toward significance in favour of viewing a mirror image of the active hand compared to viewing the active hand directly (no mirror).

There is a growing body of evidence regarding the use of mirror therapy on the upper extremity following stroke. Please also see our Mirror Therapy – Lower Extremity module for  studies that have investigated the use of mirror therapy with the lower limbs.

Authors*: Annabel McDermott, OT; Adam Kagan, B.Sc.; Samuel Harvey-Vaillancourt, PT U3; Shahin Tavakol, PT U3; Dan Moldoveanu, PT U3; Phonesavanh Cheang, PT U3; Elissa Sitcoff, BA BSc; Nicol Korner-Bitensky, PhD OT
Content consistency: Gabriel Plumier

Evidence reviewed as of before 26-10-2018

NOTE: *The authors have no direct financial interest in any tools, tests or interventions presented in StrokEngine.