Robot-assisted upper extremity training consists of repetitive practice of goal-directed exercises and activities of the upper extremities using a robot device/system. Robot-assisted upper extremity training is offered with the goal to improve upper extremity function post-stroke and can be used in acute, subacute and chronic stages of stroke recovery. Participants typically engage in functional exercises in different modes (e.g. passive, passive-assisted, active) that involve different muscle groups (e.g. shoulder and elbow vs. wrist and fingers), and perform exercises in horizontal and/or vertical positional planes. robotics_image_intro Authors*: Tatiana Ogourtsova, MSc OT; Annabel McDermott, OT; Dr Nicol Korner-Bitensky, PhD OT. Evidence reviewed as of before 04-06-2013

NOTE: *The authors have no direct financial interest in any tools, tests or interventions presented in StrokEngine.


Device Target Motion Type Feedback Degree Of Freedom Type Of Exercise Design
Active Joint Brace for the Elbow Proximal Active assistance Kinesthetic, proprioceptive, tactile and visual sensory. N/A Elbow flexion and extension in a set of functionally oriented tasks tailored to each subject’ motor abilities. Mobile exoskeleton EMG-controlled powered
ARMGuide Proximal Active-assisted Graphical feedback of the hand position and feedback on the amount of motor assistance. 3 Reaching movements in different directions Singly-actuated
ARMin I and ARMin II Proximal and distal Passive and active Visual and auditory 6 independently actuated DOF and 1 coupled DOF Functional 3D workspace repetitive exercises Exoskeleton
BATRAC Proximal Passive Auditory N/A Push and pull exercises in bilateral mode End-effector
BFIAMT Proximal Bilateral active passive, bilateral reciprocal, bilateral passive, bilateral symmetric. Visual N/A Push and pull exercises. End-effector
Bilateral Forearm and Wrist Trainer Distal Passive, active. N/A 1 Supination movement of forearm and dosiflexion/volarflexion of the wrist, bimanual, repetitive practice. End-effector
Bi-Manu-Track Distal Passive-passive, passive-active, active-active. Visual 1 Bilateral elbow pronation and supination, wrist flexion and extension in a mirror or parallel fashion. End-effector
Braccio di Ferro Proximal Adaptive control of robot assistance Visual position of the hand and target, haptic feedback. 2 Shoulder and elbow movement in horizontal plane in a goal directed activity. Actuated di Ferro
GENTLE/S Proximal Passive, active assisted or active. Virtual reality haptic interface. 3 Hand to mouth movements, reaching movements. Exoskeleton
HandCare Distal Assisted Visual 5 Opening and closing movements in a goal directed exercises. End-effector
HapticKnob Distal Assisted, resistive Interactive and intuitive visual feedback. 2 Grasping in coordination with pronation/supination of the forearm. End-effector
HWARD Distal Assisted, active assisted. Visual and auditory. 3 Grasp and release movements in a virtual-environment (VR) setting. Pneumatically actuated
L-EXOS Proximal Active assisted. Force feedback, visual feedback , auditory cueing during tasks. 5 VR environment reaching, path following and free motion exercises. Exoskeleton
MEMOS Proximal Active, passive, active-assisted, resistive. Visual feedback of the current position of the handle was provided. N/A Elbow and shoulder exercises in a sequence point-to-point reaching movements in the horizontal plane. Actuated, end-effector.
MIME Proximal Passive, active –assisted, active-constrained, bilateral modes Feedback of the fraction of the movement completed or the time to complete was used to track and motivate performance. 6 Unilateral or bilateral shoulder and elbow movement in target reaching activities. Exoskeleton
MIT-Manus Proximal Assisted Visual, auditory, and tactile 2 Shoulder and elbow movement in horizontal plane, repetitive reaching exercises. Exoskeleton
Proximal and distal Assisted, resistive, passive.   3 Abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, pronation/supination, vertical movements, grasping exercises. Exoskeleton
NeReBot Proximal Assisted. Visual and auditory. 3 Flexion and extension, pronation and supination, adduction and abduction, circular movements of shoulder and elbow. Direct drive wire actuation, can be used in sitting or lying positions.
Pneumatic Glove Distal Assisted, assist as needed. Haptic, visual . 5 Grasp release tasks, digit extension with VR environment and real objects. Exoskeleton
ReoGo Proximal Passive, active, active assisted. Visual and auditory. N/A Reaching objectives on the computer screen using elbow and shoulder joints, in 3 dimensions and on all spatial planes. End-effector
REHAROB Therapeutic System Proximal Passive assistance N/A N/A Shoulder and elbow physiotherapy, executing exercises slowly and with constant velocity in a high repetition number. Exoskeleton  
Robot-Assisted Individualized Finger Rehabilitation Distal Full passive, assisted. N/A N/A Simulated grasping and releasing training, VR based recreational activity. End -effector
T-WREX and Pneu-WREX Proximal and distal Passive (non-robotic) arm orthosis that provides support for the arm against gravity Auditory and visual feedback, objective feedback of task performance at end of each game. 5 Functional exercises in 3D/Virtual environment tasks, repetitive. Exoskeleton
Proximal Assist as needed Auditory and visual 4 Elbow flexion/extension, shoulder horizontal abduction/adduction, shoulder flexion/extension, and forward/backward translation , functional 3D tasks Exoskeleton