Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT)

A literature search was conducted to identify all relevant publications on the psychometric properties of the Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT). While studies have been conducted with other patient groups, this review specifically addresses the psychometric properties relevant to patients with stroke. At the time of publication five studies were identified: three relating to the JHFT, and one each for the JHFT (Portuguese version) and the Modified Jebsen Hand Function Test (MJT).
Floor/Ceiling Effects
No studies have examined the floor and ceiling effects of the JHFT.
Internal consistency Ferreiro, dos Santos, & Conforto (2010) examined the Cronbach’s alpha (writing: r=0.812, ?=0.844; card turning r=0.857, ?=0.632; small common objects r=0.657, ?=0.651; simulated feeding r=0.813, ?=0.646; checkers r=0.712, ?=0.633; large light objects r=0.849, ?=-0.681; large heavy objects r=0.898, ?=0.687). Inter-rater reliability Ferreiro, dos Santos, & Conforto (2010) examined the Inter-rater reliability (writing, ICC=0.999; card turning, ICC=0.977; small common objects, ICC=0.998; simulated feeding, ICC=0.991; checkers, ICC=0.995; large light objects, ICC=0.988; large heavy objects, ICC=0.991). Intra-rater reliability Ferreiro, dos Santos, & Conforto (2010) examined intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Test-retest reliability Jebsen et al. (1969) examined Test-retest reliability (writing: r=0.67, 0.84; cards: r=0.91, 0.78; small objects: r=0.93, 0.85; simulated feeding: r=0.92, 0.60; checkers: r=0.99, 0.91; large light objects: r=0.89, 0.67; large heavy objects: r=0.89, 0.92, dominant and non-dominant hands respectively). Bovend’Eerdt et al. (2004) examined the Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Content No studies have examined the content validity of the JHFT Criterion Predictive No studies have examined the predictive validity of the JHFT. Concurrent Beebe & Lang (2009) examined the correlations with grip strength (r=0.79-0.81), pinch strength (0.60-0.79), ARAT (r=0.87-0.95), NHPT (0.84-0.97) and SIS-Hand (0.61-0.83) at all time points. Note: the study did not use the first task of the JHFT (writing a sentence) due to its dependence on hand dominance and education level. Beebe & Lang (2007) examined Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Correlations between the MJT and UMAQS were not significant at either time point.

No studies have examined the construct validity of the JHFT. Known Groups Ferreiro et al. (2010) reported no significant difference in scores on the JHFT (Portuguese version) according to education level or hand dominance in a sample of 40 patients with stroke.

Beebe & Lang (2009) measured the responsiveness responsiveness from 1 to 3 months post-stroke (ES=0.69) and from 3 to 6 months post-stroke (ES=0.73). Sensitivity & Specificity No studies have examined the specificity of the JHFT.
  • Beebe, J.A. & Lang, C.E. (2007). Relating movement control at 9 upper extremity segments to loss of hand function in people with chronic hemiparesis. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21(3), 279 – 291.
  • Beebe, J.A. & Lang, C.E. (2009). Relationships and responsiveness of six upper extremity function tests during the first six months of recovery after stroke. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 33(2), 96-103.
  • Bovend’Erdt, T.J.H., Dawes, H., Johansen-Berg, H., & Wade, D.T. (2004). Evaluation of the Modified Jebsen Test of Hand Function and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 18, 195-202
  • Celnik, P., Hummel, F., Harris-Love, M., Wolk, R., & Cohen, L. (2007). Somatosensory stimulation enhances the effects of training functional hand tasks in patients with chronic stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88, 1369-76.
  • Cook, C., McCluskey, A., & Bowman, J. (2006). Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Penrith South, NSW: University of Western Sydney. Retrieved from
  • Duncan, P., Richards, L., Wallace, D., Stoker-Yates, J., Pohl, P., Luchies, C., Ogle, A., & Studenski, S. (1998). A randomized, controlled pilot study of a home-based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke, 1998(29), 2055-2060.
  • Ferreiro, K.N., dos Santos, R.L., & Conforto, A.B. (2010). Pyschometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Jebsen-Taylor test for adults with mild hemiparesis. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia (Brazilian Journal of Physiotherapy), 14(5), 377-81.
  • Jebsen, R.H., Taylor, N., Trieschmann, R.B., Trotter, M.J., & Howard, L.A. (1969). An objective and standardized test of hand function. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 50(6), 311 – 319.
  • Hummel, F., Celnik, P., Giraux, P., Floel, A., Wu, W., Gerloff, C., & Cohen, L. (2005). Effects of non-invasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke. Brain, 2005(128), 490-9.
  • Poole, J. (2003). Measures of Adult Hand Function: Arthritis Hand Function Test (AHFT), Grip Ability Test (GAT), Jebsen Test of Hand Function, and The Rheumatoid Hand Functional Disability Scale (The Duruöz Hand Index [DHI]). Arthritis and Rhematism (Arthritis Care and Research), 49(5S), S59-66.
  • Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. (2010). Jebsen Hand Function Test. Retrieved from
  • Wu, C., Seo, H., & Cohen, L. (2006). Influence of electric somatosensory stimulation on paretic-hand function in chronic stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 351-7.