Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST)

Overview

We conducted a literature search to identify all relevant publications on the psychometric properties of the OT-APST. To our knowledge, the creators of the OT-APST have personally gathered the majority of psychometric data that are currently published on the scale.

Reliability

Internal consistency.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, Darnell (2006a) examined the internal consistency levels of internal consistency.

Inter-rater.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, and Darnell (2005b) examined the inter-rater reliability (ICC = 1.00 for the items wave copy left hand, and two dimensional construction). On 12 of the 25 items, there was 100% agreement between all raters and the original ratings given by one rater on 15 patients. On the other 13 items, the proportion of agreement between all raters and the original rater ranged between 83% and 99%.

Intra-rater.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, and Darnell (2005b) examined the intra-rater reliability (ICC = 1.0).

Test-retest.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, and Darnell (2005b) examined the test-retest reliability, ranging from 0.76 to 0.95.

Validity

Criterion

Concurrent.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, Darnell (2006b) examined the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) correlation with the LOTCA (0.27-0.64) and with the LOTCA-G (0.25-0.80).

Construct

Known groups.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, Darnell (2006a) examined whether the OT-APST was able to discriminate between patients with stroke and healthy control participants. The patients with stroke performed significantly worse than the healthy participants on all 7 subscales of the OT-APST, and took significantly longer to complete the test. All t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests comparing the two groups were significant at p < 0.001. The OT-APST was found to correctly predict membership of the healthy group for 94.1% of the healthy participants, and correctly predicted membership of the stroke participant group for 56.7% of participants with stroke. The inverse figures for these comparisons are that 5.9% of the healthy participants were predicted to be members of the stroke group (predicted to have perceptual impairments), and 43.3% of participants following stroke were predicted to be members of the healthy group (no perceptual impairments).

Convergent.
Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, Darnell (2006a) examined the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) (0.80 for Constructional skills).

Similar to the study by Cooke et al. (2006a), Itzkovich, Elazar, Averbuch and Katz (2000) examined the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) correlations were found between the OT-APST and on five of the related subscales of the reference tool of the LOTCA (r = 0.36 to r = 0.70).

Elazar, Itzkovich , and Katz (1996) examined the convergent validity correlations between the performance of elderly patients with stroke on the OT-APST and on the LOTCA-G (r = 0.33 to r = 0.80).

Cooke, McKenna, Fleming, Darnell (2006a) examined whether the OT-APST correlated with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Significant correlations were observed between six of the seven OT-APST subscales and FIM motor scores. Spearman’s correlations ranged from poor to adequate (r = 0.26 to r = 0.41). Significant correlations were found between all seven OT-APST subscales and the FIM cognitive scores. Spearman’s correlations were adequate (r = 0.36 to r = 0.50). Significant negative correlations were also observed between the time taken by participants to complete the OT-APST and both FIM scores, indicating that more severe functional disability was associated with greater length of time to complete the OT-APST. Body scheme was the only OT-APST subscale score not significantly correlated with FIM motor scores.

Responsiveness

Not applicable.

References
  • Cooke, D. (1993). Development and standardization of an apraxia assessment and perceptual screening test for the elderly. In: Australian Association of Occupational Therapists 17th National Conference Proceedings, 1993.
  • Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J. (2005a). Development of a standardized occupational therapy screening tool for visual perception in adults. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 12, 59-71.
  • Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J., Darnell, R. (2005b). The reliability of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST). British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(11), 509-517.
  • Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J., Darnell, R. (2006a). Construct and ecological validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST). Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 13, 49- 61.
  • Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J., Darnell, R. (2006b). Criterion validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST). Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 13, 38-48.
  • Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J., Darnell, R. (2006c). Australian normative data for the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test. Australian Occupational Therapy, 53, 325-336.
  • Itzkovich, M., Elazar, B., Averbuch, S., Katz, N.(2000). LOTCA manual (2nd ed.). Pequannock, NJ: Maddak Inc.
  • Elazar, B., Itzkovich, M., Katz, N. (1996).Geriatric version: Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA-G) battery. Pequannock, NJ: Maddak Inc.