Single Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT)

Overview

In general, cancellation tests are believed to have greater test-retest reliability than line bisection tests and are often more sensitive for detecting USN than line bisection tests (Marsh & Kersel, 1993; Azouvi et al., 2002). The SLCT has been reported to have strong psychometric properties, including reliability and validity, in identifying USN in the near extrapersonal space (Menon & Korner-Bitensky, 2004). For the purposes of this review, we conducted a literature search to identify all relevant publications on the psychometric properties of SLCT.

Reliability

Internal consistency.

No evidence.

Test-retest.

Gordon, Ruckdeschel-Hibbard, Egelko, Diller, Simmens, and Langer (1984) examined the test-retest reliability test-retest (r = 0.63).

Validity

Construct

Egelko et al. (1988) found that the SLCT correlated adequately with mean CT-scan damage (r = -0.35) Note: This correlation is negative because a high score on the SLCT indicates better performance, whereas a high CT-scan score indicates more damage.

Zoccolotti, Antonucci, Judica, Montenero, Pizzamiglio, and Razzano (1989) found that correlations between the SLCT and other visuo-spatial tests ( Albert’s Test , Sentence Reading Test, and the Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test) ranged from adequate to excellent (ranging from r = 0.36 to r = 0.69). The SLCT was found to be the most sensitive among these tests in detecting USN (from 4.1% to 25%), which may be due to the high density of stimuli used.

Zoccolotti, Antonucci, and Judica (1992) found that the SLCT correlated with the Extrapersonal subscale of Semi-Structured Scale for the Functional Evaluation of Hemi-inattention (Kendal’s tau = -0.52). Note: This correlation is negative because a high score on the SLCT indicates better performance, whereas a high score on the Semi-Structured Scale indicates the presence of USN.

Criterion

No evidence.

Responsiveness

No evidence.

References
  • Azouvi, P., Samuel, C., Louis-Dreyfus, A., et al. (2002). Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 73, 160 -166.
  • Diller, L., Ben-Yishay, Y., Gerstman, L. J., Goodin, R., Gordon, W., Weinberg, J. (1974). Studies in scanning behavior in hemiplegia. Rehabilitation Monograph No. 50, Studies in cognition and rehabilitation in hemiplegia. New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.
  • Egelko, S., Gordon, W. A., Hibbard, M. R., Diller, L., Lieberman, A., Holliday, R., Ragnarsson, K., Shaver, M. S., Orazem, J. (1988). Relationship among CT scans, neurological exam, and neuropsychological test performance in right-brain-damaged stroke patients. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 10, 539-564.
  • Friedman, N., Nachman-Katz, I. (2004). Developmental neglect dyslexia in a hebrew-reading child. Cortex, 40(2), 301-313.
  • Gordon, W.A., Ruckdeschel-Hibbard, M., Egelko, S., Diller, L., Simmens, S., Langer, K. (1984). Single Letter Cancellation Test in Evaluation of the Deficits Associated with Right Brain Damage: Normative Data on the Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Test Battery. New York: New York University Medical Center.
  • Ladavas, E. (1994). The role of visual attention in neglect: A dissociation between perceptual and directional motor neglect. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 4, 155-159.
  • Marsh, N. V., Kersel, D. A. (1993). Screening tests for visual neglect following stroke. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 3, 245-257.
  • Menon, A., Korner-Bitensky, N. (2004). Evaluating unilateral spatial neglect post stroke: Working your way through the maze of assessment choices. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 11(3), 41-66.
  • Zoccolotti, P., Antonucci, G., Judica, A., Montenero, P., Pizzamiglio, L., Razzano, C. (1989). Incidence and evoluation of the hemi-negelct disorder in chronic patients with unilateral right brain damage. Int J Neurosci, 47, 209-216.