Upper Extremity Function Test (UEFT)


A literature search was conducted to identify all relevant publications on the psychometric properties of the Upper Extremity Function Test. Limited information is available on the UEFT. However, the Action Research Arm Test, developed in 1981 as an adaptation of the UEFT, is a more reliable, valid and responsive measure currently used for clients with stroke.
Floor/Ceiling Effects
No studies have examined the floor/ceiling effects of the UEFT.
Internal consistency:
No studies have examined the internal consistency of the UEFT.

No studies have examined the intra-rater reliability of the UEFT.

Carroll (1965) investigated inter-rater reliability of the UEFT among clinicians who were either experienced or not experienced with the UEFT. Two raters with experience using the UEFT rated the upper extremities of 48 individuals with stroke. The two examiners rated 46% of the patients identically, 21% within 1 point, 8% within 2 points, 10% within 3 points, 8% within 4 points and 6% of patients within 5 points. Subsequently, three examiners without experience using the UEFT were educated on the grading system and were then asked to rate the performance of 15 patients with stroke. The inexperienced raters scored within 7 points of the experienced raters 97% of the time. The results of this study indicate that the UEFT has strong inter-rater reliability.

Carroll (1965) examined test re-test reliability of the UEFT in a sample of 23 patients with chronic stable upper extremity impairment due to varying causes (including stroke) and 7 patients with typical upper extremity function. The UEFT was administered two times, 30 days apart. Scores for individuals with typical upper extremity function were identical on the two different testing days. Of scores attained for patients with chronic stable upper extremity impairment, 1 case was identical, 5 cases showed a 1-point difference, 7 cases showed a 3-point difference, 2 cases showed a 5-point difference, and 3 cases showed a difference of 6, 7 and 8 points. The results of this initial validation study suggest that UEFT has strong test re-test reliability.


No studies have examined the content validity of the UEFT.


No studies have examined the concurrent validity of the UEFT.

Barrecca, Finlayson, Gowland & Basmajian (1999) examined the predictive validity of the UEFT and the Halstead Category Test in 16 patients with stroke. Admission UEFT and Halstead Category Test scores were found to be predictive of discharge UEFT scores (approximately 5 weeks later), even in patients with severe upper extremity disability following stroke.

Sensitivity/ Specificity:
No studies have examined the specificity of the UEFT.


No studies have examined the discriminant validity of the UEFT.

Known Groups:
No studies have examined the known groups validity of the UEFT.

Popovic, Popovic, Sinkjaer, Stefanovic & Schwirtlick (2003) investigated the effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation on upper extremity function in patients with stroke. The UEFT was used as an outcome measure and was able to detect change in upper extremity function in patients with stroke.

  • Barreca, S., Finlayson, A., Gowland, C. & Basmajian, J. (1999). Use of the Halstead Category Test as a predictor of functional recovery in the hemiplegic upper limb: A cross-validation study. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13(2), 171-178.
  • Basmajian, C., Gowland, M., Brandstater, L., Swanson, L. & Trotter, J. (1982). EMG feedback treatment of upper limb in hemiplegic stroke patients: A pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 63, 614.
  • Carroll, D. (1965). A quantitative test of upper extremity function. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 18, 479-491.
  • Lang, C.E., Wagner, J.M, Dromerick, A.W., & Edwards, D.F. (2006). Measurement of upper extremity function early after stroke: properties of the action research arm test.Archives Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 1605-1610.
  • Lyle, R.C. (1981). A performance test for assessment of upper limb function in physical rehabilitation treatment and research. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 4(4), 483-492.
  • Okkema, K.A. (1998). Functional evaluation of upper extremity use following stroke: A literature review. Topics of Stroke Rehabilitation, 4(4), 54-75
  • Popovic, M.B., Popovic, D.B., Sinkjaer, T., Stefanovic, A. & Schwirtlich, L. (2003). Clinical evaluation of Funcational Evaluation Therapy in acute hemiplegic subjects. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40(5), 443-454.