Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Sensorimotor Recovery After Stroke (FMA) Evaluation Summary
|What does the tool measure?||Motor function, sensation, balance, joint range of motion and joint pain.|
|What types of clients can the tool be used for?||Patients with post-stroke hemiplegia|
|Is this a screening or assessment tool?||Assessment|
|Time to administer||It takes approximately 30-35 minutes to administer the total FMA. Administration of the motor, sensation and balance subscores range from 34 to 110 minutes, with a mean administration time of 58 minutes. When the motor scale is administered on its own, it takes approximately 20 minutes to complete.|
|Versions||Modified FMA-Balance subscore
12-item short form
|Other Languages||Translated and validated in French|
– Out of 3 studies examining internal consistency, all 3 reported excellent internal consistency.
Excellent correlations with Barthel Index, Motor Assessment Scale (except sitting balance items on both scales), Sensory Organization Balance Test, Action Research Arm Test, DeSouza scale, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment scale, Berg Balance Scale, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM), the shortened versions of the FMA and STREAM, performance assessments of walking velocity and velocity index, and Arm Motor Ability Test.
|Floor/Ceiling effects||A poor ceiling effect has been found with the Sensation subscore. A poor floor effect has been found with the modified Balance subscore of the FMA at 14 days after stroke. Another study reported an excellent floor effect and an adequate ceiling effect for the FMA motor scores both at admission and discharge from a rehabilitation program.|
|Does the tool detect change in patients?||Out of 5 studies examined, 1 reported that the FMA has a large ability to detect change, 1 reported moderate, 1 reported small to moderate, and 2 reported a small ability to detect change.|
|Acceptability||Administration of the entire FMA is lengthy. The test is scored by direct observation and cannot be completed by proxy respondent.|
|Feasibility||The FMA must be administered by a trained physical or occupational therapist. It does not require any specialized equipment and can be administered across a variety of settings and has been tested for use in longitudinal assessments.|
|How to obtain the tool?||The FMA can be obtained by following the link below (from the Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Goteberg, Goteberg, Sweden).
A version of the measure is also provided in Fugl-Meyer et al. (1975), and in the book by Dittmar, S. S. and Gresham, G. E. (1997) entitled Functional assessment and outcome measures for the rehabilitation health professional.
The FMA manual of procedures developed by Sullivan et al. (2011), can be obtained by following the link below: