Â Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) Evaluation Summary
|What does the tool measure?||Balance|
|What types of clients can the tool be used for?||Patients following stroke, regardless of balance performance|
|Is this a screening or assessment tool?||Assessment|
|Time to administer||10 minutes|
|Versions||wePASS (Swedish version)
SFPASS (5-item, 3-scale short form)
PASS-3P (12-item, 3-scale form)
|Other Languages||French, Swedish|
– 3 studies have reported excellent internal consistency of the PASS.
– 1 study reported excellent internal consistency of PASS trunk control items (PASS-TC).
– 1 study reported adequate to excellent same-day intra-rater reliability of the SwePASS in patients with acute stroke.
– 1 study reported excellent inter-rater reliability of the PASS-TC.
– No studies have reported on the content validity of the PASS.
Criterion Predictive Validity
– 1 study reported that the PASS-TC demonstrates excellent convergent validity with the BI and FMA-B.
– 2 studies have examined the convergent validity of the SFPASS or PASS-3P and reported that both measures show excellent correlations with the BI and FIM.
|Floor/Ceiling Effects||– 3 studies have reported no floor or ceiling effect of the PASS from acute to chronic stages of stroke recovery. However, 1 study reported a poor floor effect at 90 days post-stroke.|
|Does the tool detect change in patients?||– 6 studies have examined responsiveness and found that the PASS is able to detect change in stroke. The PASS demonstrates good responsiveness before 90 days post-stroke but low responsiveness at later stages of recovery. Further, the PASS is more responsive to detecting change in moderate to severe stroke than mild stroke.
– 3 studies have examined responsiveness in the PASS-3P or SFPASS and reported that both measures are able to detect change in acute and subacute stroke.
|Acceptability||The PASS was designed for patients with stroke, regardless of balance function.|
|Feasibility||The PASS is quick and simple test to administer, and requires minimal equipment and no specialized training.|
|How to obtain the tool?||The tool is available on line: http://www.brightonrehab.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Postural-Assessment-Scale-for-Stroke-Patients-PASS.pdf|