Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening Test (TOR-BSST©)

Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening Test  (TOR-BSST©) Evaluation Summary

  What does the tool measure? Risk for dysphagia following stroke.
  What types of clients can the tool be used for? The TOR-BSST© was developed for patients with stroke across the recovery continuum.
  Is this a screening or assessment tool? Screening tool
Time to administer Ten minutes.
  Versions There is one version of the TOR-BSST©.
Languages Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazil)
 Measurement Properties

Internal consistency:
No studies have reported on the internal consistency of the TOR-BSST©.

No studies have reported on the test-retest reliability of the TOR-BSST©.

No studies have reported on the intra-rater reliability of the TOR-BSST©.

Two studies have reported excellent inter-rater reliability of the TOR-BSST©. (Martino et al., 2006; Martino et al., 2009)


Development of the TOR-BSST© involved item generation from systematic review and subsequent item reduction, in combination with consultation with expert Speech-Language Pathologists. (Martino et al., 2000; Martino et al., 2009)

No studies have reported on the concurrent validity of the TOR-BSST©.

– One study has conducted a randomized controlled diagnostic study of the TOR-BSST© by comparison with videofluoroscopy.

No studies have reported on the convergent/discriminant validity of the TOR-BSST©.

Known Groups:
– No studies have reported on the known group validity of the TOR-BSST©.

  Floor/Ceiling Effects

Not applicable

  Does the tool detect change in patients? The TOR-BSST© is designed as a screening test and scored using binary responses, so is not intended to detect change.
  Acceptability The TOR-BSST© is quick to administer.
The TOR-BSST© requires specialised training.
Feasibility The TOR-BSST© is suitable for administration across acute and rehabilitation settings. The screening is easily portable and is quick to administer, score and interpret.
How to obtain the tool?

Click here for information regarding the TOR-BSST©.